TENS – TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is the use of /electric current produced by a device to stimulate the nerves for therapeutic purposes. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) currently is one of the most commonly used forms of electroanalgesia. Hundreds of clinical reports exist concerning the use of TENS for various types of conditions, such as low back pain (LBP), myofascial and arthritic pain, sympathetically mediate pain,bladder incontinence, neurogenic pain, visceral pain, and postsurgical pain.
TENS doesn`t need any drugs or medicaments. An adequate intensity of stimulation is necessary to achieve pain relief with TENS. It is a non-invasive, low-risk nerve stimulation intended to reduce pain, both acute and chronic. TENS by definition covers the complete range of transcutaneously applied currents used for nerve excitation although the term is often used with a more restrictive intent, namely to describe the kind of pulses produced by portable stimulators used to treat pain. The unit is usually connected to the skin using two or more electrodes. Electrical impulses spread throughout the organismand have an impact of human activities on multiple processes:
Improves blood circulation,
Strengthens the lymphatic circulation,
Promotes tissue recovery processes,
Activates the fermentative system,
Displays a pain reliever and anti-inflammation effect,
Improve the general health, mood,
Increases the vegetative nervous system tonus, stabilizes blood pressure, pulse, normalizes sleep.
Quantum therapy main purpose is to help activate the body’s internal resources .And to cope with the pain with the help of natural and physiological factors.
Therapeutic effects are:
Tissue recovery process recovery,
Eliminates the pain syndrome, decreases muscle weakness, swelling,
Enhances the effect of the drugs, stimulates nerve recovery, improves paralyzed muscle tone and nutrition,
Regulates the process of metabolism, immune and defense mechanisms growth, vegetative process improvement,
Eliminates puffiness of affected joints, significantly lightens the pain.
Laser therapy is any treatment using intense beams of light to precisely cut, burn, or destroy tissue. The term laser is an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. The laser light beam comes from radiation sources so small and safe that it poses no health risks to the patient or medical team. Laser rays penetrating deep up to 10-13 cm, have potent inflammatory effects on blood circulation in tissues, on intracellular and membrane blood circulation, activates the physiological processes, regulates the hormonal system. Laser therapy has revitalizing, nourishing, anti-inflammation and analgesic effects.
Diseases of joints, radiculitis, plexitis, osteochondrosis, liver Diseases, spine disk hernia, arthritis, artrosis, gonarthrosis, osteoartrosis, bursitis, gout,
DIADYNAMIC – ELECTROTHERAPY
Diadynamic – electrotherapy method based on the use of therapeutic and preventive and rehabilitative goals diadynamic currents (DDT), or Bernard currents. It is justly regarded pulse therapy, which uses currents of different shapes and frequency supplied to the continuous and pulsed modes. DDT is a half-sine currents at 50 and 100 Hz, and the trailing edge of decaying exponentially. Diadynamic refers to therapy in which the pulse currents of different frequencies are used, fed in various modes. All units generate two main semi sinusoidal voltage with a frequency of 100 Hz and 50.
The main effects of the treatment Diadynamic are analgesic, vasoactive, and tropic miostimuliruyuschy. Diadynamic therapy implements numerous physiological and therapeutic effects that are inherent DD’T. According to their physical nature, characteristics that enter the body and interact with different cell and tissue structures. Influenced diadynamic therapy activates peripheral blood circulation, increases venous outflow ,decreases perineural edema, increases metabolism, relieves spasms and swelling of tissues decreases, attenuated the inflammatory process.
When diadynamic therapy clearly manifests an analgesic effect, which is based on several mechanisms. Central mechanism is due to the suppression of pain in the brain dominance through the creation of a new dominant and increased formation of endorphins in the brain, altering the perception of pain. In Diadynamic therapy usually the electrodes of the same area are used. But sometimes can use smaller diameter electrode to enhance the action of the current in the pathological focus. Diadynamic therapy is also used for electrastimulation of neuromuscular apparatus.
Acute pain caused by the nervous system, (eg. intervertebral hernia)
Diseases of the digestive organs.
Electrophoresis (Medicinal) is a method of physical therapy, which combines the effect of direct electric current and drug. With this method of introducing drugs into the body through the skin and prostate.
Electrophoresis (Medicinal)is a method of combined effects on the body of a constant electric current and the drug, administered with it. A significant role in the mechanism of action of drug electrophoresis play electric current as an active biological stimulus.
Distribution of drugs by electrophoresis in comparison with other methods of reference, has some differences. The drug in this case, enters the body through the skin, at least – through the mucous membranes or wound surface. Route of entry of drugs as it passes through the skin are the ducts of sweat and sebaceous glands, as well as intercellular gap.
Electrophoresis of drugs is their deposition in the skin for a period of 1 to 2 days. From skin depots due to osmosis and diffusion motion of medicinal substance is slowly and gradually penetrate into the deeper tissues, spreading through the blood throughout the body. In what medication is distributed in various organs. However, due to an electric field is determined by the highest concentration of drug in the tissues lying in the interelectrode space. Deposition of drug in the skin by electrophoresis contributes to their prolonged stay in the body, slow urinary excretion, and duration of action.
Typically, there are no adverse reactions peculiar to drug substances when administered in other ways, as the body receives their small number. In addition, the ballast of the drug and a solvent, often causing side effects, do not enter the body – they stay on the strip. The method of drug electrophoresis enables us to introduce the medication directly into the lesion, if the latter is located in the superficial tissues (skin, subcutaneous fatty tissue, mucous membranes). At the same time drugs during electrophoresis with the circulating blood and reach the deep-seated tissues, concentrating in large numbers in the organs located in the space between the electrodes.
Along with these advantages of this therapeutic method should be noted some of its shortcomings. Not all drugs can be used for electrophoresis. From the large number of pharmacopoeial preparations for the introduction by electrophoresis is suitable only a limited number (about 200). In the treatment of several diseases, which must be obtained in the body a high concentration of drug, inappropriate use of electrophoresis.
Phonophoresis is the use of ultrasound to enhance the delivery of topically applied drugs. Phonophoresis is a form of treatment that is used during physical therapy. It involves the use of ultrasound combined with a medication gel. The medication is applied to the skin, and then ultrasound waves are used to help pass the medicine through the skin and into your injured body part.
Phonophoresis has been used in an effort to enhance the absorption of topically applied analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents through the therapeutic application of ultrasound. Phonophoresis is used most often in the treatment of inflammation in a muscle, tendon, ligament or other soft tissue in the body. Therefore, phonophoresis is considered an anti-inflammatory treatment. Inflammation is the natural healing process that occurs in the body after injury. The signs and symptoms associated with inflammation include pain, swelling, redness and increased temperature of the inflamed body part.
Injuries and diseases of musculosceletal system.
Darsonvalization is low intensity, high-voltage, high-frequency impulse therapeutic effect on a certain part of the body. Darsonvalization’s therapeutic effects are – expansion of vessels, pain relievation, antipimple effect, bactericide, vein’s medicinal effect, nutrition improve effect.
Amplipulse therapy is an electro therapy method during which the patient is exposed to alternating modulated currents of low intensity. These currents combine of high and low qurency. Amplipulse therapy uses alternating sinusoidal currents of 2000-10000 Hz frequency modulated by sinusoidal low-frequency oscillations ( ranging 10-150 Hz). Unlike the low-frequency currents having evident stimulating effect on neuromuscular and vascular systems .High-frequency current does not meet with skin resistance, penetrates deep into tissues, does not cause evident irritation of cutaneous receptors. It is well-tolerated by patients and has stimulating effects on tissues located deep.
As a result of intensifies outflow of metabolic products from the nidus, edema – one of the reasons causing pain – reduces. Pain termination contributes to the reduction of vasospasm, they expand,histrotropy improves. Currents ability to provide motional stimulation allows to apply them for electric stimulation of cross-striated muscles, including stimulation of breathing, gastrointestinal tract function, urethral peristalsis. This method is widely applied to children due to absence of irritation and unpleasant sensations.
Sneurological pains, paresis, paralysis,
Diseases of the joints,
Injuries of musculosceletal system.